The 14 BibTeX entry types

Possibly the most difficult aspect of using BibTeX to manage bibliographies is deciding what entry type to use for a reference source. We list all the 14 BibTeX entry types including their description on when to use.

article

An article from a journal, magazine, newspaper, or periodical.

    @article{CitekeyArticle,
      author   = "P. J. Cohen",
      title    = "The independence of the continuum hypothesis",
      journal  = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences",
      year     = 1963,
      volume   = "50",
      number   = "6",
      pages    = "1143--1148",
    }
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book

A book where the publisher is clearly identifiable.

    @book{CitekeyBook,
      author    = "Leonard Susskind and George Hrabovsky",
      title     = "Classical mechanics: the theoretical minimum",
      publisher = "Penguin Random House",
      address   = "New York, NY",
      year      = 2014
    }
BibTeX example: book citation style abbrv
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booklet

A printed work that is bound, but does not have a clearly identifiable publisher or supporting institution.

    @booklet{CitekeyBooklet,
      title        = "Canoe tours in {S}weden",
      author       = "Maria Swetla", 
      howpublished = "Distributed at the Stockholm Tourist Office",
      month        = jul,
      year         = 2015
    }
BibTeX example: booklet citation style abbrv
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conference

An article that has been included in conference proceedings. See inproceedings for details.

inbook

A section, such as a chapter, or a page range within a book.

    @inbook{CitekeyInbook,
      author    = "Lisa A. Urry and Michael L. Cain and Steven A. Wasserman and Peter V. Minorsky and Jane B. Reece",
      title     = "Photosynthesis",
      booktitle = "Campbell Biology",
      year      = "2016",
      publisher = "Pearson",
      address   = "New York, NY",
      pages     = "187--221"
    }
BibTeX example: inbook citation style abbrv
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incollection

A titled section of a book. Such as a short story within the larger collection of short stories that make up the book.

    @incollection{CitekeyIncollection,
      author    = "Shapiro, Howard M.",
      editor    = "Hawley, Teresa S. and Hawley, Robert G.",
      title     = "Flow Cytometry: The Glass Is Half Full",
      booktitle = "Flow Cytometry Protocols",
      year      = 2018,
      publisher = "Springer",
      address   = "New York, NY",
      pages     = "1--10"
    }
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inproceedings

A paper that has been published in conference proceedings. The usage of conference and inproceedings is the same. The conference entry was included for Scribe compatibility.

    @inproceedings{CitekeyInproceedings,
      author    = "Holleis, Paul and Wagner, Matthias and Koolwaaij, Johan",
      title     = "Studying mobile context-aware social services in the wild",
      booktitle = "Proc. of the 6th Nordic Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction",
      series    = "NordiCHI",
      year      = 2010,
      pages     = "207--216",
      publisher = "ACM",
      address   = "New York, NY"
    }
BibTeX example: inproceedings citation style abbrv
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manual

A technical manual for a machine software such as would come with a purchase to explain operation to the new owner.

    @manual{CitekeyManual,
      title        = "{R}: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing",
      author       = "{R Core Team}",
      organization = "R Foundation for Statistical Computing",
      address      = "Vienna, Austria",
      year         = 2018
    }
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masterthesis

A thesis written for the Master’s level degree.

    @mastersthesis{CitekeyMastersthesis,
      author  = "Jian Tang",
      title   = "Spin structure of the nucleon in the asymptotic limit",
      school  = "Massachusetts Institute of Technology",
      year    = 1996,
      address = "Cambridge, MA",
      month   = sep
    }
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misc

Used if none of the other entry types quite match the source. Frequently used to cite web pages, but can be anything from lecture slides to personal notes.

    @misc{CitekeyMisc,
      title        = "Pluto: The 'Other' Red Planet",
      author       = "{NASA}",
      howpublished = "\url{https://www.nasa.gov/nh/pluto-the-other-red-planet}",
      year         = 2015,
      note         = "Accessed: 2018-12-06"
    }
BibTeX example: misc citation style abbrv
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phdthesis

A thesis written for the PhD level degree.

    @phdthesis{CitekeyPhdthesis,
      author  = "Rempel, Robert Charles",
      title   = "Relaxation Effects for Coupled Nuclear Spins",
      school  = "Stanford University",
      address = "Stanford, CA",
      year    = 1956,
      month   = jun
    }
BibTeX example: phdthesis citation style abbrv
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proceedings

A conference proceeding.

    @proceedings{CitekeyProceedings,
      editor    = "Susan Stepney and Sergey Verlan",
      title     = "Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computation and Natural Computation, Fontainebleau, France",
      series    = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
      volume    = "10867",
      publisher = "Springer",
      address   = "Cham, Switzerland",
      year      = 2018
    }
BibTeX example: proceedings citation style abbrv
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techreport

An institutionally published report such as a report from a school, a government organization, an organization, or a company. This entry type is also frequently used for white papers and working papers.

    @techreport{CitekeyTechreport,
      title       = "{W}asatch {S}olar {P}roject Final Report",
      author      = "Bennett, Vicki and Bowman, Kate and Wright, Sarah",
      institution = "Salt Lake City Corporation",
      address     = "Salt Lake City, UT",
      number      = "DOE-SLC-6903-1",
      year        = 2018,
      month       = sep
    }
BibTeX example: techreport citation style abbrv
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unpublished

A document that has not been officially published such as a paper draft or manuscript in preparation.

    @unpublished{CitekeyUnpublished,
      author = "Mohinder Suresh",
      title  = "Evolution: a revised theory",
      year   = 2006
    }
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